It is critically important to the security of your system that you protect your password file and the environment variables that identify the location of the password file. Any user with access to these could potentially compromise the security of the connection.
The REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE setting of 'NONE' disallows remote administration of the database. The REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE setting of 'EXCLUSIVE' allows for auditing of individual DBA logins to the SYS account. If not set to 'EXCLUSIVE,' remote connections to the database as 'internal' or 'as SYSDBA' are not logged to an individual account.
Disable use of the remote_login_passwordfile where remote administration is not authorized by specifying a value of NONE.
If authorized, restrict use of a password file to exclusive use by each database by specifying a value of EXCLUSIVE.
alter system set remote_login_passwordfile = 'EXCLUSIVE' scope = spfile;
alter system set remote_login_passwordfile = 'NONE' scope = spfile;
The above SQL*Plus command will set the parameter to take effect at next system startup.
Restrict ownership and permissions on the Oracle password file to exclude world (Unix) or everyone (Windows).
More information regarding the ORAPWD file and the REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE parameter, can be found here:
The following resource is also helpful.
This security hardening control applies to the following category of controls within NIST 800-53: Configuration Management.This control applies to the following type of system Unix.